# Term The description
1 Technical Analysis

Study the past trend of the stock price and its trading volume to try to predict its future direction. Specialized programs are used to convert price changes into charts

that link the price to time.


2 Fundamental Analysis

A study and analysis of all the variables surrounding the company, whether they are related to the general economic conditions in the state or the conditions of the industry to which the company’s conditions themselves belong.


3 Speculation:

Buying and selling securities with aim of achieving quick profits in the short term through price

Differentials or the so-called capital gains


4 Investment:

It is the process of investing money in financial assets that result in future periodic or non-periodic returns


5 Volatility

It is a measure of the amount at which the assets price is expected to fluctuate around it during a specified period, usually measured by the annual standard deviation of changes in the daily (historical) price

6 Leverage

It is the ratio that indicates the extent to which funding for any project or institution depends on borrowing, and it is calculated by dividing the total obligations by shareholders or capital rights.


7 Stop Loss Order

A buy or sell order similar to the market order specified above, except that the transaction does not take place unless the share price reaches a certain price and thus a stop loss sale order is entered to avoid further loss when the price reaches or descends below the specified price


8 Minimum Quantity Order

This type of order executes deals with a counter-order that contains an equal amount for the specified quantity as a minimum in this matter or with a counter-order that contains a larger amount than it and the value of the order sent on this type of order must not be less than / 250,000/ two hundred and fifty thousand Syrian pounds


9 Ice Berg Order
This type of order contains a visible quantity and a hidden quantity, and this type of order does not allow the addition of the condition of execution or cancellation, and the minimum value of the total order sent on this type of order is set at 750,000 / seven hundred fifty thousand Syrian poundsThe value of the quantity shown in the matter should not be less than / 250,000/ two hundred and fifty thousand Syrian pounds


10 All or None

This type of order permits the full implementation of the quantity or nothing is executed from it, either through one transaction, or through several deals where it executes these handouts according to the priority of the opposite orders sent to the trading system down to the price specified in the order sent


11 Fill Or kill

An order sent to the trading system to execute the largest amount of it on the price specified in the order or at better prices than it, and cancel the remaining amount (if any) immediately


12 Good till date

Valid from the moment it is sent to the trading system until its execution or its expiry date according to the entered date, and the trading system automatically deletes the order sent to it in case it is not partially or fully executed until the specified date


13 Open Order

This order remains posted on the trading system for a period of 30 days from the date the order was entered or the date of the last amendment to the order. Either it is executed with a reverse order or it is deleted by the person who entered it

14 Day

An order for one trading day that is deleted at the end of the trading day if it is not partially or fully executed


15 Market Order

The order sent to the trading system to be executed on the price chain on the opposite side


16 Fixed Price

It is the order sent to the trading system at a specified price, not more than in the case of buying and not less than in the case of selling


17 Gross

It is the order sent to the trading system that includes a purchase order and a sales order sent by the same broker on the same security to two different clients with a specified amount and price so that the price and quantity of the purchase order is equal to the price and quantity of the sale


18 Bye

It is the order sent to the trading system to purchase a specified amount of a specific security at a specific price or at the market price and under certain conditions where the broker is obliged to implement the attributes on the order sent either at the specified price or a better price than it


19 Sell

It is the order sent to the trading system to sell a specified amount of a specific security at a specific price or at the market price and under certain conditions where the broker is obliged to implement the attributes on the order sent either at the specified price or a better price than it


20 Index

A statistical tool to measure the change in the price of shares of listed companies weighted by the market value


21 Market Maker

It is usually a financial brokerage firm licensed to carry out the work of the market maker as it bears the risks of a certain number of shares and their management with the aim of achieving a demand and offer for permanent and continuous liquidity on those shares, and the market maker is not aiming for profit but rather achieves it by carrying out his mission


22 Custodian

A legal person who performs the following actions:

Organizing, registering, preserving and transferring the ownership of securities belonging to clients, managing the receipt and delivery of these securities from the financial broker, seller or buyer, collecting interest, profits and rights belonging to the securities of his clients, and sending periodic reports to his clients in the operations that implemented their interests


23 Investment Trustee
A legal person who exercises follow-up to the management and control of investments to ensure compliance with the principles and objectives agreed upon between the client and the investment manager


24 Investment Manager

A legal person who practices managing the securities portfolio for others, including managing the investment fund


25 IPO Manager

A legal person who, on behalf of the issuer, performs the studies and procedures necessary to issue the new securities


26 Broker

A legal person practices the purchase and sale of securities for the account of others


27 Arbitrage

The process of trading in securities is done to take advantage of the price differentials in several financial markets (buying a security from a financial market and selling it in another financial market


28 Hedging

The action that a person takes to protect himself from inappropriate or discouraging changes in prices, and this is done by the insurer making purchase or sale deals in a clearing manner in an effort to accelerate the assets to balance the invested capital, and to avoid the change that may be caused by monetary inflation from a change in prices

These preventive deals are usually done to protect the change in the price of foreign currencies, the prices of securities, or the financing of financial assets by means of financial obligations or other dues.


29 Closed-end Fund

It is characterized by the stability of its capital structure, and therefore the number of shares traded has a constant and does not change as the documents of this fund are traded on the stock exchange like any other security.


30 Mutual Fund

It is a fund with variable capital, where its capital structure is constantly changing. Investment documents are sold to the investor in a direct and non-negotiable way in the stock exchange and the investor can assign them by returning them directly to the fund source

31 Collective Investment Scheme

It provides the means for a large number of investors toIIaccumulate their resources and manage them with the knowledge of financial institutions to achieve the benefits that they cannot achieve individually, in addition to the risks that the investor is exposed to in the fund are less than those that may be faced by the investor of his money in the market directly as the large number of shares and bonds The funds maintained by the funds mitigate the effects that any of the tools may have on the overall performance of the investment portfolio

32 Minority Interest

Ownership is relatively small in the company’s shares, in which the total voting rights are not controlled by the company, and it is also the visible part of the consolidated financial statements from the net business results and net assets of a subsidiary company and the returnees of the shares owned by the parent company


33 Shareholders' Equity

The total assets of the company are subtracted from the total liabilities, i.e. the paid-up capital, the obligatory reserve, the issue premium, and any other reserves in addition to the retained earnings and distributable profits minus accumulated losses and treasury shares

34 Disclosure

It is the disclosure of information of interest to investors and includes in the financial statements and reports of the inspectors that affect the price of the security. The disclosure must be general and to the public and not only to the stockholders and investors

And this is through daily newspapers and periodically related to the financial year of the relevant authority or immediately when needed or when new information occurs


35 Underwriting

Marketing and underwriting coverage of new securities on behalf of the issuer under the commitment agreement to cover the issue between them


36 Prospectus

A prospectus containing all information related to the issued securities and the party that issued them, which may positively or negatively affect the subscription process

37 Float

The process of inviting the public to subscribe to securities whose issuance has been approved


38 Issuing

The process of issuing securities with the intention of putting them on the market and inviting the public to subscribe to them


39 Treasury Bills

Bonds that include short-term financial obligations that the state treasury offers for sale at auctions on a weekly basis (issued at a discount) and their maturity period extends between 83 to 182 days

40 Maturity

The date of maturity of debts resulting from loans or financial bonds payable, and the maturity period is calculated from the date of issuance of the bond to the due date of payment


41 Redeeming
Redemption of value is made by repurchase or amortization of debts (1) The right to recover the value of preference shares is to be paid to shareholders in addition to paying the value of the premiums.(2) Redeeming the value of the bonds before their due date, in addition to the bid interest amount
(3) The repayment of the common capital net appropriations when the value of the shares has been liquidated


42 Bond

A document in which the amount of the debt to be paid, whether the debt is to a company or to the government, is written down, and the specified date for the required amount is recorded


43 Treasury Stocks

Shares of shares that are issued and then re-requested from the company, where they can be kept or canceled, the company does not obtain any profits for such shares and there are no rights to vote because the company cannot own itself


44 Free Float

It is the percentage of the company's shares available for public circulation


45 Stock Split

Issues are made for additional shares up to a certain amount, which may lead to a decrease in the nominal value of shares by a certain percentage, as the profits of the share interest are relative

There is no need to include this in the books of the budget because the company's accounts will not change. The goal of this process is to reduce the price of one share in the market in order to encourage the investor to buy


46 Dividends

Dividend distribution to shareholders is based on the shares owned by each of them, and cash distribution is the most widespread method of dividend distribution. Dividends may sometimes be in the form of shares or in the form of ownership or by granting part of a bond


47 Market value

Stock price in the market.


48 Book value

The share of the share is represented in the shareholders' equity and the company, calculated on the basis of dividing the shareholders ’equity by the number of issued shares


49 Par value

It is the amount determined by the company's articles of association, which is approved as a basis for the value of one share of shares, and this value is printed on the face of the stock document.


50 Stock

A security note that represents a share in the capital of the company that issued it and the shareholder is entitled to a portion of the profits accrued to the company and the shares are of two types

Ordinary shares, which are title deeds that give the bearer the right to attend the annual general assembly and obtain distributions if the company has achieved profits and the company’s board of directors has decided to distribute part or all of it. In the event of liquidation of the company, the dividends of ordinary shareholders are paid after the dues of bond holders and preference shareholders are paid

Premium Shares is a class of shares that give its owner additional rights that the ordinary shareholder does not enjoy, such that its owner takes precedence over ordinary shareholders to obtain their rights when the company is liquidated before ordinary shareholders and after bondholders.


51 Security

It is intended in Syria

  • Shares of tradable companies
  • Negotiable debt instruments issued by Syrian joint stock companies.
  • Tradable public debt instruments issued by Syrian shareholding companies
  • Investment units issued by investment funds and companies
  • Or any other Syrian or non-Syrian financial papers that are approved by the Commission


52 Fourth Market

Evidence of electronic trading on the Internet



53 Third Market

The market is outside the cabin where the major

deals are made


54 Second Market

It is through which trading is organized in the hall with shares of companies that are governed by the terms for the inclusion of soft concessions for this market, working to provide early liquidity for listed securities, until the conditions for their inclusion in the regular market are provided.


55 First Market

It is through which dealings in the hall are organized with shares of companies governed by special listing condition


56 Secondary Market


It is the market in which securities issued in the primary market are traded and traded through certified brokerage firms, which include:

  • The parallel market, which is through which trading in the hall is done with shares of companies that are governed by the terms for facilitating the listing of this market, providing early liquidity for listed securities, until the conditions for listing them in the regular market.

57 Primary Market

It is the primary issuance market, that is, the market that issues securities (bond, stocks …) for the first time and is subject to the regulation of the SecuritiesCommission.


Brokerage Firms